NATO Alphabet

International Phonetic Alphabet/Morse Code
A . - Alfa (AL-FAH) S . . . Sierra (SEE-AIR-RAH)
B - . . . Bravo (BRAH-VOH) T - Tango (TANG-GO)
C - . - . Charlie (CHAR-LEE)
U . . - Uniform (YOU-NEE-FORM)
D - . . Delta (DELL-TAH) V . . . - Victor (VIK-TAH)
E . Echo (ECK-OH) W . - - Whiskey (WISS-KEY)
F . . - . Foxtrot (FOKS-TROT) X - . . - Xray (ECKS-RAY)
G - - . Golf (GOLF) Y - . - - Yankee (YANG-KEE)
H . . . . Hotel (HOH-TELL) Z - - . . Zulu (ZOO-LOO)
I . . India (IN-DEE-AH) 1 . - - - - Wun
J . - - - Juliett (JEW-LEE-ETT) 2 . . - - - Too
K - . - Kilo (KEY-LOH) 3 . . . - - Tree
L . - . . Lima (LEE-MAH) 4 . . . . - Fow-er
M - - Mike (MIKE) 5 . . . . . Fife
N - . November (NO-VEM-BER) 6 - . . . . Six
O - - - Oscar (OSS-CAH) 7 - - . . . Sev-en
P . - - . Papa (PAH-PAH) 8 - - - . . Ait
Q - - . - Quebec (KEH-BECK) 9 - - - - . Nin-er
R . - . Romeo (ROW-ME-OH) 0 - - - - - Ze-ro

Formation Flight

Air to Air Refuelling

Here you can find all information that you need to know about Air to Air Refuelling (AAR).

Within this example about AAR you will be able to find :

  • General information
  • AAR Track information
  • Refuelling aircrafts and systems
  • Pilot procedures
  • ATC procedures
  • Communications example

General information

This information is not to teach you the process of AAR, but to inform you about the procedures how AAR is being done. This information is worldwide the same to all AAR procedures for pilots and controllers.

AAR is being done to keep aircraft longer in the skies without a necessary landing for the need of fuel. AAR is being done during various kinds of missions, long range flights, training purpose or when a airbase is not available.

Aircraft who are going to perform AAR are being called “receivers”.

AAR track information

AAR is only taken place in a specified part of an airspace. All NATO counties have there own specified AAR area. Such area or airspace is called an AAR track or orbit. You can compare this with a holding pattern. Within this information manual we mention the word track.

An AAR track, are all different from each other. Not every track has the same radials, headings, altitudes and speeds.

There are only four things that every AAR track has. Those are :

  • Air Refuelling Initial Point (ARIP)
  • Air Refuelling Control Point (ARCP)
  • Air Refuelling Anchor Point (ARAP)
  • Air Refuelling Exit Point ( AREP)

ARIP : This is the point where you going to enter the AAR track. From the ARIP you fly direct to the ARCP, from were you start to fly the AAR track.

Entering a AAR track can be done at two separate ways.

1.) Tanker aircraft and receiver fly together into the track. 2.) If the tanker aircraft is already inside the track, the receiver must enter via the ARIP and fly the track to the tanker aircraft.

When the tanker aircraft is already inside the track and busy with other receivers, you need to fly a holding pattern called “recipients holding” within the AAR track. When you are cleared to enter the track, ATC will notify you.

After AAR you need to exit the tanker track again at the AREP. This point is always in the same line with the ARIP. You need to leave the AAR track always 1000FT above the AAR aircraft.

Refueling aircraft and systems

There are only a view aircraft that are able to refuel other aircraft within the skies above us. From those aircrafts you have several versions available. Those aircraft are in service with various kinds of air forces. Also, some modern military jets are able to refuel there own type of plane as well. The aircrafts below are specified AAR aircrafts only.

  • KC-10
  • KDC-10
  • KC-130
  • VC-10
  • Tristar
  • B707-338
  • B767
  • KC-97

Those AAR aircrafts can be equipped with two different kind of AAR systems. Because some aircraft require to be refueled from a drogue, and other from a boom system.

When a drogue is used, the aircraft must have a a refueling probe. The best way to compare a drogue is with a basket.

When a drogue is used, the pilot must be able to fly his aircraft with the refueling probe extended in to the basket. When a boom is used, the pilot must fly below the aircraft and the boom operator will place the boom on the aircraft. Both systems require accurate flying, and good coordination.

Pilot procedures

As a pilot who is going to perform AAR there are some procedures that he must follow. During AAR the pilot is in contact with ATC until he approaches the tanker aircraft. When near the tanker aircraft, pilots are in control with the tanker aircraft only, and not with ATC.

When entered the AAR track, ATC will guide you towards the tanker aircraft. It is allowed to enter the AAR track on own navigation and fly toward the tanker. Pilots can always ask ATC to guide them toward the tanker aircraft. When the pilots is visual on the tanker aircraft, ATC will handover the receiving aircraft to the tanker. From now on, the pilot follows the given instruction by the tanker aircraft only.

All instructions given by the tanker aircraft must be repeated!


Is position is always on the right-hand side of the tanker aircraft. On this side all receivers should join up with the tanker aircraft.


When a pilot is cleared to pre-contact position by the tanker aircraft, that means the pilot is cleared to leave the observation position, and moves his aircraft about 3/5NM behind the aircraft. Now, the pilot is moving slowly forward until almost in contact position with the tanker aircraft.


Contact position means that you are now cleared to fly on to the boom/drogue to receive your fuel.


When disconnect you have received your fuel, and you move your aircraft to left-hand wing observation.

ATC procedures

In order to create a “as real as it gets” environment, ATC rules/communication are a must to all AAR pilots. For ATC procedures, we have the tanker aircraft and the receiver aircraft.

The tanker aircraft must be able to coordinate with ATC and the receivers. The receivers only coordinate with ATC until handed over to the tanker aircraft.

The tanker pilot must mention his heading, altitude and speed on first contact with the receivers. Also must the tanker pilots report every turn he is going to make inside the track to the receivers.

  • Before entering the track the tanker pilot have to call a delay to ATC to get at the refueling altitude.
  • ATC has to approve the delay and inform the tanker pilot about possible receivers.
  • The tanker pilot has to call ATC when at the refueling altitude and beginning the tanker orbit.
  • The tanker pilot then ask to ATC to let the first receivers come up inside the track for AAR.
  • ATC will call the receivers that they are clear to enter the track
  • Receivers will fly into the track and call ATC when they have visual contact on the tanker.
  • Receivers must always be visual on the tanker aircraft before proceeding to the next step.
  • Pilots will call ATC when visual on the tanker aircraft.
  • ATC gives the receivers a handover to the tanker pilot.
  • ATC must take care that there are no non-receivers inside the track when the tanker aircraft is starting the orbits.
  • When the receivers are visual on the tanker and in contact with the tanker aircraft, then the tanker can place the receivers into several positions.
  • Such as right-hand wing observation or one receiver directly to pre-contact position.
  • The tanker is responsible for ATC inside the track with his receivers on his freq.
  • When a receiver is in pre contact position there after can be contact position given. This means the position the will refuel.
  • After refueling the receiver that just had his fuel will fly into a left-hand wing observation position.
  • During AAR the tanker pilot must ask the receivers there idea's / plans after they are done refueling.
  • Pilots need to report this to the tanker pilot.
  • The tanker pilot then contacts ATC and report the idea's / plans of the receivers after refueling.
  • ATC must then arrange clearance for the receivers after they are done with refueling.
  • When this clearance is in, ATC will report that to the tanker pilot and the tanker pilot will pass it on to the receivers again.
  • The tanker pilot will give the clearance to the aircraft and hand them over to ATC again

Communication Example

Below is a example how ATC is being done between tanker aircraft, receiver aircraft and ATC. This example indicates the tanker altitude at FL280.

NAF41 = Tanker Aircraft

NASTY = Receiver Aircraft

Dutchmil = ATC


Dutchmil NAF41 entering the tanker orbit, request block altitude.

NAF41 Dutchmil, enter the track climb FL280, block altitude FL260/FL290

Climbing FL280 inside the track copied the block for NAF41.

Dutchmil NAF41 steady FL280.

NAF41 Dutchmil roger request receivers ?

Dutchmil NAF41 only 1 receiver scheduled, callsign NASTY, operation on 108.000

NAF41 Dutchmil copied all.

Dutchmil Nasty with you FL250 inbound the tanker.

Nasty Dutchmil goodday identified proceed to the tanker track report initial point.

Nasty wilco.

Nasty tanker block FL260/FL290.

Nasty copied.

Nasty climb FL270 into the track report visual on the tanker.

Nasty wilco.

Dutchmil Nasty visual on the tanker 12’o clock high.

Nasty contact tanker.

Nasty wilco, see you later.

Nasty NAF41 read you loud en clear how me ?

Nasty read you loud en clear as well.

Nasty NAF41, cleared to climb in the block FL280, call ready.

NAF41 Nasty steady locked on behind.

Nasty is cleared to join, request offload ?

Nasty is cleared to join and request 2000 pounds of fuel.

Nasty NAF41 copied 2000 pounds offload and request intentions after refueling ?

Nasty would like to proceed in to the TRA’s at FL330.

NAF41 copied.

Dutchmil NAF41

NAF41 Dutchmil go ahead.

Nasty request to leave at FL330 into the TRA.

NAF41 Dutchmil roger that, approved.

Nasty NAF41 after refueling cleared rightwing observation.

Cleared rightwing for Nasty.

Nasty NAF41 disconnected boom, cleared rightwing observation climb FL290.

Cleared rightwing FL290, squawk 1301 clear to leave.

NAF41 Nasty leaving the track thanks for the gas, see you next time.

Nasty your welcome bye bye sir.

Dutchmil Nasty with you FL290 leaving the track.

Nasty Dutchmil good day sir, identified climb FL330 into the TRA’s.

Nasty Wilco.

Dutchmil NAF41, done refueling request RTB Eindhoven.

NAF41 Dutchmil copied proceed to SSB FL220.

Additional information

AAR tracks are always located at a specified altitude. Receivers must always enter the at track 1000FT below the tanker altitude. Receivers must always leave the at track 1000FT above the tanker altitude.

Because there are various tankers available on the internet, speed indications may not be the same by tanker aircraft and receiver.

Combat Air Patrol

Combat air patrol (CAP) is a type of flying mission for fighter aircraft.

Public source:

Military source:

A combat air patrol is an aircraft patrol provided over an objective area, over the force protected, over the critical area of a combat zone, or over an air defence area, for the purpose of intercepting hostile aircraft before they reach their target. Combat air patrols apply to both overland and overwater operations, protecting aircraft, fixed and mobile sites on land, and ships at sea.

Known by the acronym CAP, it typically entails fighters flying a tactical pattern around or screening a defended target, while looking for incoming attackers. Effective CAP patterns may include aircraft positioned at both high and low altitudes, so as to shorten response times when the attack is detected, The first CAPs were characteristic of aircraft carrier operations, where CAPs were flown to protect a carrier battle group, but the term has become generic to both Air Force and Navy flight operations. Capping operations differ from fighter escorts in that the CAP force is not tied to the group it is protecting, is not limited in altitudes and speeds it flies, and has tactical flexibility to engage a threat. Fighter escorts typically stay with the asset they are supporting and at the speed of the supported group, as a final reactive force against a close threat. When an escort engages, the supported force is left unprotected.

How to plan a CAP

If you have FS-Navigator it’s not so difficult. You have to imagine that a cap is a area where 1 or more aircraft can fly in at a specific height. (e.g.. FL100, FL150 etc.) When you have to patrol above low targets (ships, buildings, bridges etc.) you need to have your CAP at a low altitude, below FL100. A CAP has always a CAP SWITCHON TIME or a CAP SWITCHOFF TIME.

Plan the CAP, use standard flying route to the CAP or a TACAN approach. Take care that in your flight plan you take the following additional remarks CAP TYPE (eg HAVCAP) and RADIUS (NM)


Where the aircraft MUST be present between those two times. By using timeslots for CAPS it’s possible to protect a large area with few aircraft.

Suppose you have 4 aircraft available then it’s wise to split into two CAPS. CAP-A and CAP-B Where CAP-B switch-on time needed to be 5 minutes before the switch-off time of CAP-A. And if you put both caps at various heights (e.g. min. 5000ft spacing. You have optimum cap coverage for that area. If you want to protect a AAR route (tanker aircraft) your CAP must be planned as a square maximum 5000ft above the tanker flight level.

For example: In the Netherlands we fly the carol-track with AAR at FL290. CAP practice will be at FL295 when protecting the Tanker

A rule of thumb is that you must be able to be within a minute at striking range of any target in your CAP area.. So the size of a CAP is depending of:

1) Number of aircraft 2) Type (e.g. Speed of aircraft) 3) Endurance of aircraft (how long on how many fuel)

I would suggest to start practice with a FASTCAP.

A CAP a virtual square area in the air where the route must be flown within.. See drawing:

Where A will be the CAP PLANNED HEIGHT

Where B will be your planned CAP eclipse or circle pattern (Not longer than 200NM radius)

Take in the planning a reserve fuel rate of approx 15 to 20 minutes.

I hope this gives you some directions how to think, and plan. When I worked for the AOCC at Münster we planned a lot of these type of CAPS for the NATO. In reality it's heavy used by air forces to obtain air-dominance with few resources and maximises the effectiveness of the aircraft.

For operations at IVAO we have to take special care of the IVAO regulations.. So we will limit the CAPS into following;

  • FastCAP: Combat air patrol for fighter strike aircraft.
  • FORCAP: “Force Combat Air Patrol”, a patrol of fighters maintained over the strike force, essentially an escort.
  • HAVCAP: “High Asset Value Combat Air Patrol”, flown to protect a high-value asset such as an AWACS or a tanker during its specific time on station.
  • RESCAP: “Rescue Combat Air Patrol”, a fighter force, often ad hoc in organization, used to protect both persons to be rescued from a ground threat, and aircraft or other rescue forces from both ground and air threats.
  • SARCAP: “Search and Rescue Combat Air Patrol”, an earlier version of RESCAP.
  • TARCAP: “Target Combat Air Patrol” is flown over or near a strike target in order to protect specialized aircraft such as the tanker aircraft from harassment by enemy fighters.


Not for operational use

This phraseology is giving you examples of Air Traffic Control (ATC) for the use by Special Operations on IVAO. In some occasions it can be used for civilian purposes as well.

This may and can be use by overall ATC between pilots and controller on IVAO network. This will show you in complete text examples how voice communications goes around the globe.

In this example you are able to find :

  • Common information
  • Basic, Standard and Advanced
  • Used terms
  • Emergency procedures
  • Radio communication


Within the overall aviation world, communication is a very essential part of it.

Communication must be used to let all aircraft fly through the skies without any problems.

Pilots and ATC must use communication from the beginning until the end.

Without communication the skies above us would be one big mess.

That’s also what we on IVAO don’t want to create.

Language Within aviation the language English is being used only. It’s also permitted to use own language as a pilot or ATC only, when some big misunderstandings take place. (To fellow country members only)

English language must be maintained and present at all times.

Transmission To transmit a message as a pilot to ATC or as ATC to a pilot there are some things you need to keep in mind before transmitting.

  • Before transmitting a message, listen first carefully to the frequency. You don’t want to interfere with others.
  • Now how to handle your microphone and teamspeak.
  • Use a normal transmission mode. Speak clearly and slowly. This way you are better to understand.
  • Maintain a constant transmission speed. Don’t shout and change your speed of talking.
  • Incase of an emergency, stay calm. Don’t start yelling and doing all crazy.
  • Use short breaks between numbers when transmitting. This way confusions don’t have to occur.
  • Push your transmission button before starting to talk. Let is go after you finished.
  • Never use voice activation for teamspeak. This way you can interfere without any idea.

When you transmitted a message and made a mistake, always use the term “correction “to correct you message to the own you are transmitting to.

The best way to give your correction, you could transmit the message again.

Now you can use “correction, I say again “

Priority Transmissions that begin with emergency calls are always first!

“PAN-PAN-PAN “: Indicates something has goes wrong. Not a emergency call yet.

“MADAY-MAYDAY-MAYDAY “: Indicates a emergency in progress.

Readability When a transmission is not clearly, or is clear you can use “Unreadable, Say Again, Loud en Clear.

Example: Reading you loud and clear with some background noise.

Word/Phrase Meaning
ACKNOWLEDGE Let me know you have recieved and understood this message.
AFFIRM Yes (note: The word AFFERMATIVE is used by some nations).
APPROVED Permission for proposed action granted.
BREAK Indicates the seperation between portions of messages.
BREAK, BREAK Indicates the seperation between messages to different aircraft when busy.
CANCEL Annul the previously transmitted clearance.
CHECK Examine a system or procedure (no awnser is expected).
CLEARED Autorized to proceed under the conditions specified.
CONFIRM Have I correctly recieved the following ? Or did you correctly recieve this ?
CONTACT Establish radio contact with...(controller to controller).
CONTINUE WITH Used when it is already known that an aircraft has already established contact.
CORRECT That is correct
CORRECTION An error has been made in the transmission.
DISREGARD Consider that trnsmission as not send.
FREE CALL Call another unit as designated. Handover to other unit not obtained.
GO AHEAD Proced with your message.
HOW DO YOU READ What is the readability of your transmission.
I SAY AGAIN Repeat your last transmission
MONITOR Listen out on... (frequency)
NEGATIVE No or permission not granted or that is not correct
OVER My transmission is ended and expect a response from you.
OUT The transmission is ended and no response is expected.
PASS YOUR MESSAGE Proceed with your message.
READ BACK Repeat all, or the specified part, of this clearance or part there of.
REPORT Pass the following information.
RECLEARED A change has made to your last clearance or part of.
REQUEST I should like to know... or I wish to obtain.
ROGER I have recieved all your last transmission.
SAY AGAIN Repeat all, or the following part of your transmission.
SPELL Spell portion indicated phonetically.
SPEAK SLOWER Reduce your rate of speech.
STANDBY Wait and I will cann you back.
VERIFY Check and confirm.
WILCO I have recieved your message, understood, and will comply with it.

Use of term Cleared Can only be used by the following options:

  • Cleared ILS approach
  • Cleared for departure route
  • Cleared for take-off

The word take-off may only be used it a aircraft is really cleared to. Otherwise use the word departure.

Authorization to flight routes such as airways, altitudes and intersections are used with the term “Cleared to/off “

To use the “cleared to “term can also be applied by:

  • Cleared to cross runway
  • Cleared to land
  • Cleared for tough and go.

Never use the term “cleared to/for “by the following:

  • Start-up (start-up approved)
  • Crossing a runway (Crossing approved)
  • Taxi (taxi to ….)
  • Exit runway (vacated rwy )

ATC may also never use clear to in case of climb or descent

ATC shall use “ climb to and descent to “


(ATC) KLM123 descent to FL100 …

(Pilot) KLM123 leaving FL150, descending to FL100

Also when a heading is given you must use the word “ heading ” before it.


KLM123 turn right heading 240.

What you hear a lot is KLM123 turn right 240.

Some pilots may understand this as heading 40.

Issuance of a clearance

  • (aircraft) cleared to …
  • Recleared (amended clearance details)
  • Recleared (amended route portion) TO

(significant point of original route)

  • Enter control area or zone via (significant point) at (level) at (time)
  • Leave control area or zone at (level)

(or climbing or descending)

  • Join (specify) at (significant point) at (level) at (time)

Indication of route and clearance limit

a. From (place) to (place)

b. To (place) followed as necessary by :

  • Direct
  • Via (route and/or reporting points);
  • Via flight plan route
  • Via (distance) arc (direction) or (name of DME station)
  • Out of control area or zone (distance) (direction) or (place)

Maintenance of specified levels

  • Maintain (level) to (significant point).
  • Maintain (level) until passing (significant point).
  • Maintain (level) until (time).
  • Maintain (level) until advised by (name of unit).
  • Maintain (level) until further advice.
  • Maintain (level) while in controlled airspace.
  • Maintain at least (number) feet (or meters) above or below (aircraft identification).

The term 'MAINTAIN' is not be used in lines of descend or climb when instructing an aircraft to change level.

Specification of cruising levels

  • Cross (significant point) at (or above, or below) (level).
  • Cross (significant point) at (time) or later(or before) at (level) (maintain own separation and VMC).
  • Cruise climb between (levels) (or above) (level).
  • Cross (distance) (name of DME station) DME at (or above, or below) (level).

Emergency descent

  • Emergency descend (intentions)
  • Emergency descent at (significant point or location) all aircraft below (level) within (distance) of (significant point or navigation aid) leave immediately (followed as necessary by specific instructions as to direction, heading or track, etc.).
Basic Voice Phraseology

This will show you in text how basic ATC will go. (UNIT) means the callsign of the ATC station. (C/S) callsign the aircraft.


Pilot :

Unit)…….(C/S) (C/S) Type, Position and Heading, Altitude/flight level

Any other information (destination, intentions, etc) Request……….(service)

Example : Amsterdam Radar, KLM123, KLM123 is a B747-400, 12NM east of SPY, Heading 150, at FL280 inbound EEL, Request flight following.


Radar :


                    for identification turn L/R heading
                    (length of time e.g. 'For 1 minute'
                    may be added)

This procedure is not a standard; this maneuver may be requested by ATC only in case of doubt about aircraft identification (not squawk identified for example)

Pilot Turning L/R heading ….(C/S)


ATC (C/S) Squawk ####

Pilot Squawk #### (C/S)

ATC (C/S) Squawk ident

Pilot Squawk ident (C/S)

ATC (C/S) Squawk standby

Pilot Squawk standby (C/S)

On identification :

ATC (C/S) Identified (position)

Service given :


* Radar control

* Radar advisory

* Radar information

* Radar monitoring



                    Traffic L/R ... o'clock ... miles,  
                   Flight level/altitude (if known) 
                    (additional information e.g. 
                    crossing L/R indicating .... ft above/below, under our control no confliction)


Radar control

ATC (C/S) (If necessary, additional 'IMMEDIATELY')

                        Avoiding action turn L/R heading (Pilot is to reply acknowledging turn)
                        (followed by traffic information)

Radar advisory : Remarks :


                    Traffic information if not 
                    sighted turn L/R heading....

Pilot Turning, looking, maintaining, Pilot is to reply stating intentions


ATC (C/S) at controllers discretion/late sighting or

                    Avoiding action if not sighted                        
                    turn L/R heading ... traffic 

Pilot Turning, looking, Pilot is to reply stating intentions

                    maintaining, etc.

Radar information :

ATC Traffic information

Pilot is to acknowledge but is responsible for own avoiding action. If aircraft is maneuvering

then traffic information is to be given by reference cardinal points i.e. traffic 5 miles 
north, heading south

HEADING : Remarks :


* Request heading

* Your heading should be …

* Continue heading

* Resume original heading


ATC (C/S) Pilot is to reply acknowledging instructions

* Turn L/R heading …

* Stop turn heading …

* Continue turn heading …


ATC (C/S) Pilot is to reply acknowledging instructions

* Request altitude/height/ flight level

* Maintain: …. fl/FL

* Descend/climb to: altitude ….. Ft/FL …..

* Report: leaving, reaching, passing …. Ft/FL …..Level


ATC (C/S) Pilot is to reply acknowledging instructions

                    Descend/climb with 1500 ft
                    per minute or less to FL 330,
                    reason TCAS



* Radar service terminated

* No radar service for next … miles as you pass through/close to the radar overhead/permanent echoes/ weather clutter


ATC (C/S) only when required

* Request flight conditions

* Confirm VMC/IMC

* Report any change in flight conditions

Pilot Pilot replies as appropriate



ATC (C/S) Request aircraft type

Pilot (ACFT type) (C/S)


Pilot (Unit)(C/S) Request steer (heading)

ATC (C/S) Steer (heading or degrees)

Standard R/T Communication for Taxi/Take Off (Fixed wing aircraft only) At dispersal/platform : Remarks:

Start up (if applicable)

Pilot (Unit)(C/S) 1) Except for single/dual seated fighter aircraft (Position) (Intention) (POB1) Information(ATIS Information) Request start up.

ATC (C/S) (Unit) POB1) Start up approved Information correct/not correct (RWY)(QNH), Time

Pilot Roger, start up approved (RWY)(QNH) (Time checked)

Example :

Amsterdam Startup, KLM123 at gate D5, with 1 POB, received information C, request start up.

Clearance :

ATC (C/S) are you ready to copy your clearance ?

Pilot Ready or Stand by, go ahead

ATC (C/S) cleared to …… via …….. (Via flight planned route) …….. (Clearance limit) (If applicable) Squawk ….

Pilot Cleared to ……… via ……… (Via flight planned route) …….. (Clearance limit) Squawk ….

Clearance will be given during Startup or during taxi.

At dispersal : Remarks :

Pilot (Unit)(C/S) Position of aircraft may be required by ATC.

              (C/S) Request taxi                                           POB may be required by ATC

ATC (C/S) (Unit) (C/S) Taxi RWY …. QNH ……hPa/inch. Aerodrome (AD) elevation (if required) …. Ft/m (any additional ATC-information) or RWY …. Left or RWY … right is to be used for (C/S) (Unit) (C/S) Hold parallel RWY installation

Pilot (C/S) If a taxi instruction includes the crossing of a …..(RWY) …….(QNH) RWY, a taxi-limit has to be included at all times or (C/S) Hold

At holding point :

Pilot (C/S) Line-up and hold' may be used by ATC when it Ready for departure is possible to permit an aircraft to the take off

                                                                    position but not for actual take off.

ATC (C/S) Cleared take off surface wind … (clock code) … knots (departure procedure)(if applicable) or (C/S) line-up (and hold) surface wind …

               (Clock code) ... knots

or (C/S) Hold

Pilot (C/S) Cleared for take off or (C/S) line up and hold

        Or (C/S) hold                                                  switching from 'ground  control' to
                                                                    tower frequency is only permitted after prior
                                                                    approval from 'ground control'

Standard R/T Communication for Taxi/Take Off (Helicopters)

At dispersal/helisquare : Remarks:

Pilot (Unit) (C/S) Position of helicopter may be required by ATC (C/S) POB Request taxi or Request hover taxi or Ready for departure

ATC (C/S) (Unit) (C/S) POB Taxi helisquare …….. or RWY … QNH …….hPa/inch. AD elevation …. Ft/m (if required). Surface wind … degrees …… knots or Hover taxi or Hold

Pilot (helisquare/RWY) Wind …. Degrees ….(knots) ….(QNH) or (C/S) Holding

At holding position :

Pilot (C/S) Ready for departure

ATC (C/S) Cleared take off or (C/S) Hold

Pilot (C/S) Cleared for take off or (C/S) Holding

Standard R/T Communication Approach & Landing VFR (Fixed Wing Aircraft)

Overhead pattren:

Approaching and when approximately 3 minutes from initial point


Pilot (Unit) (C/S) 1) except for single/dual seated fighter aircraft (C/S) POB 1) Position ……. (……FL/Altitude) Information……..(ATIS), (If applicable) for landing/touch and go/low approach

ATC (C/S) (Unit) (C/S) POB 1) RWY … (R/L) QNH (fighters may prefer QFE instead of QNH)….. HPa/inch. AD elevation …

              Ft/m (if required)

Information correct (if applicable) (Any additional ATC-information)

Pilot (C/S) (RWY) (QNH) (fighters may prefer QFE instead of QNH)

At initial point : (at least 3 NM (5 km) generally around 10 Nm

Pilot (C/S) Initial to land/ full stop, roll/touch and go, overshoot/low approach

ATC (C/S) (pass circuit traffic information) surface wind … (clock code) …. Knots

               Cleared for the break (information if required), surface wind … report 180 point (=downwind) gear down and locked (or 3 greens)

Pilot (C/S)

On the break :

Pilot (C/S) on the break

ATC (C/S) Number …

Pilot (C/S) Number …

At final/base leg :

Pilot (C/S) Final/base, gear down (and locked)/three greens

ATC (C/S) Slow lane L/R (if applicable) cleared to …….. (Intentions)

Pilot (C/S)

Rectangulair Pattern : Remarks:

Approaching and when approximately 1 minute before entering the CTR

Pilot (Unit) (C/S) (C/S) POB 1) 1) except for single/dual seated fighter aircraft Position ……. (…….. FL/Altitude) Request joining/landing instructions

ATC (C/S) (Unit) (C/S) POB 1) Report L/R-hand downwind RWY … QNH (fighters may prefer QFE instead of QNH) ….. HPa/inch. AD elevation …. Ft/m (if required) (any additional ATC-information)

Pilot (C/S) (RWY) (QNH) (fighters may prefer QFE instead of QNH)

If pilot wishes straight in-approach after first call

Pilot (C/S) Request straight in- approach ……… (Intentions)

ATC (C/S) (straight in) approved report…… (Position as required by ATC) or (C/S) Negative (plus additional information as required)

Pilot (C/S) Report (position) or (C/S) (acknowledge instructions)

At downwind position :

Pilot (C/S) Downwind (intentions)

ATC (C/S) Number ….. Wind in degrees for civil traffic and military Surface wind …. (Clock code/ transport aircraft degrees) …. knots or (C/S) Orbit (L/R) (at …. ft/m)

Pilot (C/S) or (C/S) Orbit (L/R) (at …. ft/m)

At final/base leg : Remarks:

Pilot (C/S) Surface wind may be passed with final Final/Base, gear down (and locked)/ clearance if significant three greens

ATC (C/S) Cleared to ……. (Intentions) or If pilot fails to state position of landing

              (C/S) Continue                                                gear ATC has to remind pilot to recheck and

or confirm 'Gear down' (C/S) Go around

Pilot (C/S) Cleared to (intentions) or (C/S) Continuing or

              (C/S) Going around

After overshoot/touch and go :

Pilot (C/S) Returning to initial/ request (Closed pattern, short initial, SID)

In case of request for closed pattern:

ATC (C/S) Closed approved, report downwind/negative, return (or other relevant info)

When closed approved:

Pilot (C/S) Closed approved, wilco

Pilot (C/S) Downwind

ATC (C/S) Number …., winds…..

Pilot (C/S) Number ….

After landing and vacating the RWY :

Pilot (C/S) RWY vacated

ATC (C/S) Roger/ roger contact ground on frequency …..

In case of frequency change

Pilot (C/S) switching to …..


Pilot (C/S) RWY vacated

Standard R/T Communication Approach & Landing VFR (Helicopters) Approaching and when approx. 1 minute before entering the CTR

Pilot (Unit) (C/S) (C/S) POB …….. Position …… (….. FL/Altitude) Request joining/landing instructions

ATC (C/S) (Unit) (C/S) POB …….. Report ……(position) helisquare or RWY … (L/R-hand) QNH …. HPa/inch. AD elevation ….. Ft/m (if required). Surface wind …. (Degrees) …. knots (any additional ATC information)

Pilot (C/S) (helisquare/RWY) (wind)…. Deg (QNH)……

If pilot wishes straight in-approach after first call

Pilot (C/S) Request straight in-approach

ATC (C/S) Approved or negative AD information is passed as required (plus further instructions)

Pilot (C/S) (acknowledge instructions)

At downwind position :

Pilot (C/S) downwind (plus intentions)

ATC (C/S) Number ….or other pertinent instructions

At final position :

Pilot (C/S) Final gear down Surface wind may be passed with final (and locked)/three greens clearance if significant

                (If appropriate)

ATC (C/S) Cleared to (intentions)

Pilot (C/S) Cleared to (intentions)

Standard R/T Procedure TACAN IAP/SID Instrument Approach Procedure:

Initial call at least 3 minutes prior to arrival over facility or as directed by ATC.


Pilot (Unit) (C/S) POB 1), Heavy 2) 1) Except for single/dual seated fighter ACFT (C/S) Position…….. 2) If applicable ……..FL/Altitude Request TACAN-approach for RWY… (full-stop/ overshoot/touch and go)

ATC (C/S)(unit) (C/S) Report IAF

                RWY ... (or any other points as required by ATC) 
                (Aerodrome-/weather information should be passed) MDA ......ft. Request your minimum

Pilot (C/S) (acknowledge instructions)

Initial Approach Fix :

Pilot (C/S) IAF

ATC (C/S) (QNH) Depending on radar availability and local cir- hPa/inch cleared for TACAN- cumstances, the pilot can be ordered to report approach RWY… (Additional positions/ distances/altitudes information) report … (Fighters may prefer QFE instead of QNH)

Pilot (C/S) Report…

Final Approach Fix :

Pilot (C/S) FAF with gear down Landing QNH is to be confirmed as set if not already checked. If approach is radar monitored,

                                                                                        controller is to advise pilot approaching the published missed approach point
                                                                                      (Fighters may prefer QFE instead of QNH)

ATC (C/S), continue approach 1. Clearance to be obtained at 4 NM touchdown. (If no TWR clearance available) 2. In case of full stop, slow lane L/R (if applicable) or cleared to land/overshoot/ touch and go, the wind is……..

Pilot (C/S) (acknowledge instructions

Aerodrome in sight or Missed Approach :

Pilot (C/S) RWY in sight or (C/S) Carrying out missed approach

Standard Instrument Departure :

Initial call pilot to approach when airborne or in take off-roll if so arranged between TWR and APP.

Pilot (Unit) (C/S) (C/S) climbing SID ……..(number or applicable SID), passing ……..(FL or altitude) for …….. (Cleared FL or altitude)

ATC (C/S) (Unit) (C/S) identified 1) 1) If radar is available Report passing FL … (report FL …/report reaching FL …/report turning at ….. NM)

Pilot (C/S) will report passing FL … (reaching FL …/turning at … NM)

Pilot (C/S) passing FL … (reaching FL …/turning at … NM)

ATC (C/S) Contact (Unit) (C/S) on frequency ……

Pilot (C/S) (Unit) (C/S) frequency ……..

Standard R/T procedures ILS

On initial approach approximately 10 minutes flying time from destination


Pilot (Unit) (C/S) (C/S) POB 1) Position….. 1) Except for single/dual seated fighter ACFT ….. FL/Altitude request ILS-approach to land/full stop, roll/touch and go, overshoot/low approach

ATC (C/S) (Unit) (C/S) POB 1) Pilot is to be passed the procedure cleared ILS-approach RWY minimum (DA) report localizer established (or DME range …). Additional radar directing may be required

                                                                   before the aircraft is established on the
                                                                   localizer, anyhow in case of a turn of more
                                                                   than 30 degrees, around 5 Nm before beginning 
                                                                                    of the descent in order to let pilot time enough to  
                                                                                    perform final cockpit check              
              (C/S) QNH.....

Pilot (C/S) QNH…..hPa/inch

Localizer established :

Pilot (C/S) Localizer established

ATC (C/S Report glide path descending

Interception of glide path :

Pilot (C/S) Glide path descending, gear down(and locked)/three greens


Final clearance :

ATC (C/S) ….miles If approach is monitored by a radar controller (range as specified locally) then the pilot is to be advised when from touchdown, cleared to approaching his declared DA or procedure land/full stop, roll/touch and go minimum overshoot/low approach, surface wind …. (Clock code) ….knots slow lane L/R (if applicable)

                                                                                   Pilot repeats clearance

Basic Voice Phraseology For Radar Approach Procedures

On initial approach approximately 10 minutes flying time from destination


Pilot (Unit) (C/S) (C/S) POB 1) 1) Except for single/dual seated fighter ACFT Position……. ….. FL/altitude Request PAR/ASR-approach to land/full stop, roll/touch and go, overshoot/ low approach

ATC (C/S) (Unit) (C/S) Identified. POB 1) this will be a L/R-hand pattern for PAR, PAR AZ only or ASR RWY …, MDA/DA……ft/m. Request your minimum. (Military traffic only)

Pilot (pilots repeat) (C/S) and say minimum (Military traffic only)

ATC (C/S) QNH……..hPa/inch

                (fighters may prefer QFE instead of QNH)

Pilot (C/S) Speed may be specified for separation in the

 QNH.....                                                        radar pattern. If QNH remains the same it is
                                                                    unnecessary to carry out altimeter checks on
                                                                    aircraft in multiple training circuits

Handover final controller (if required)

ATC (C/S) ……(range), Contact final controller on frequency ……..

Pilot final controller (C/S) QNH…..minimum…..

ATC (C/S) identified. (Plus other instructions as required)

Pilot (C/S) (pilots repeat)

Glide path and rate of descent (PAR)

ATC (C/S) Approaching glide path approximately 1/2 NM before GPIP (or other glide

               (C/S) Begin descent now                                   path warning as laid down in local operating procedures)

for a …DEG glide path acknowledge descending

              Instead of …DEG ATC may give the rate of descend requested according to speed approach

Pilot (C/S) descending

ATC Do not acknowledge further instructions

                unless requested. On glide path. Slightly 
                above/ below glide path. Adjust rate of 
                descent. Correcting slowly/rapidly/nicely 
                to glide path. Well above/below glide path. 
                On glide path  resume normal rate of descent

Descent (PAR AZ only/ASR)

ATC (C/S) Approaching descent Approximately 1/2 NM before descent (or other point advisory altitude will be passed descent warning as laid down in local operating at intervals during this approach procedures)

               (C/S) Begin descent now

acknowledge descending

Pilot (C/S) descending


ATC ……..miles from ……..(location) to be passed at 1 NM intervals, from 2 miles at 1/2 NM intervals


ATC Heading is good. Well/right/left of centerline. Correcting rapidly/slowly/nicely to centerline. On centerline


ATC Turn L/R ….DEG Heading…….

Glide path failure during PAR

ATC (C/S) Glide path failure. Procedure continues until published Missed Minimum descent altitude is …. Ft Approach Point (MAP) for AZ only approach acknowledge

Pilot (C/S) MDA …ft

Undercarriage check

ATC Check gear down(and locked)/ three between 2 and 3 NM from touchdown greens, acknowledge

Pilot (C/S) Gear down (and locked)/ three greens

Clearance Remarks:

ATC (C/S) Clearance to be obtained from TWR-controller

                       a.      Cleared to land/full stop,
roll/touch and go, overshoot/ low              a. normally at 4 NM but not less than 2 NM

approach surface wind … (clock code) …….knots

                 b.     Final clearance delayed continue                 b. indicating required clearance may be forth-coming 


                 c.     Break off this approach – acknowledge        Slow lane L/R (if applicable)

(further instructions as required)

Pilot (C/S) Acknowledge (repeat any further instructions)

At pilots minimum

ATC When passing your minimum take over visually

Pilot Insight

ATC End of Radar vectoring, contact Tower …

At DA or MDA

ATC Passing DA or MDA advisory information from now on

Pilot Any message as required, e.g. (C/S) starting Missed Approach

                                                                    Controller has to pause to allow pilot to pass 
                                                                    any required message

At touchdown (or earlier if unable)

ATC (C/S) Over touchdown…. Aircraft to be transferred to TWR-controller or when appropriate (range) Radar service terminated

Standard R/T For (Simulated) Flameout Procedures

Initial Call Remarks:

Pilot (Unit) (C/S) (C/S) Position and heading FL/altitude….Squawking…. Request SFO

Homing (by Radar or TACAN)

ATC (C/S) (Unit) (C/S) Identified Radar approach, turn L/R heading … , report steady, set QNH ….. HPa/inch

Pilot Turning on/to/steady heading … , QNH ….. Set (C/S)

ATC (C/S) Pass FL/altitude/ height with all transmissions

Pilot FL/altitude/height (C/S)

ATC (C/S) Weather…….., RWY…., length…..available (including cable state)

Pilot FL/altitude/height…..(C/S)

ATC (C/S) Remain on this TWR-controller assumes control and rigs frequency for the local controller appropriate cable if applicable or contact tower on…… (Frequency)

Overhead procedure

Initial Call :

Pilot (Unit) (C/S) (C/S) Request SFO

                                                                    aircraft with a request for a 'Flameout recovery'

ATC (C/S) (Unit) (C/S) Report high key rwy … QNH ….. HPa/inch

Pilot (C/S) (acknowledge)

High key

Pilot (C/S) High key


Based on the understanding that common definitions, procedures and regulations for the handling of military air traffic in the various States are a prerequisite for a fully integrated civil-military air traffic environment, in a first step, definitions for GAT and OAT were identified.

General Air Traffic is defined as: “all flights which are conducted in accordance with the rules and procedures of ICAO and/or the national civil aviation regulations and legislation”.

Operational Air Traffic is defined as: “all flights which do not comply with the provisions stated for GAT and for which rules and procedures have been specified by appropriate national authorities”.

Harmonisation of OAT/GAT covers three main actions.

  • Identify the various types of military operations witch can be accomodated by applying the same, or nearly the same, rules and procedures as applied for civil aviation (GAT) and those who cannot require seperate rules and procedures (OAT)
  • Defining common rules and procedures for handeling military operations within the airspace.
  • Common principles for the safe handeling of civil and military traffic in a mixed environment within several airspaces.

Various types of Air Traffic

Civil flights, which come under the category of general air traffic (GAT: IFR or VFR), including certain military traffic.

Military flights, which come under the category of military operations traffic and, and acceptance flight tests. Military air traffic (OAT) includes both military operations traffic and acceptance flight test flights. These three types of air traffic, very different in nature, must all use the airspace together in safety. In the upper airspace, the general air traffic is organized around pre-determined routes (PDR) or airways. Civil flights only ever deviate from these routes after co-ordination with military centres.

OAT (Military Air Traffic) flights, on the other hand, have unforeseeable flight paths (combat) or ones that are difficult to modify. Because of this, airspaces must be temporarily reserved for them where they can fly without interfering with civil air traffic.

Finally, there is one more category of military flights: “out of area” military air traffic. These are flights that can use all the airspace. The military controller in charge of this flight is responsible for maintaining separation with other aircraft, according to information provided by civil aviation systems.

OAT may never interfer with GAT.

ATC needs to seperate OAT and GAT at any times.

Call Signs

Most countries has there own air force, they also have a nation air force call sign. Such call signs are mostly used if aircrafts are flying to another country for a period of time. Such call signs are also used to represent the aircrafts air force.

Such call signs can indicate air force, navy, army or joint guard flights.


Netherlands NAF Netherlands AF
Belgium BAF Belgium AF
Austria ASF Austrian AF
Brazil FAB Brazilian AF
Germany GAF German AF
Denmark DAF Danish AF
Norway NOW Norwegian
United Kingdom RFR Rafair
France CTM Cotam (French AF cargo)
France FAF French AF
Portugal AFP Portuguese AF
Italy IAM Italy AF
Slovakia SQF Slovak AF
Poland PLF Polish/PLF
Spain AME Airmil
Canada CFC Canforce
Ireland IRL Irish Aircorps
Sweden SVF Sweedforce
Turkey TuAF Turkish AF
Greece HAF Hellenic AF
Russia RFF Russian AF
South Africa LMG South African AF
Brazil FAB Brazilian AF
Mexico FAM Mexican AF
Ecuador FAE Ecuadorian AF
Australia ASY Aussy
Thailand RTAF Royal Thai AF
Switzerland SUI Swiss AF
Egypt EGY Egyptian AF
Venezuela FAV Aviacion Militar Bolivariana
Morocco RMAF Royal Moroccan AF
Romania ROF Romanian AF
Czech CEF Czech AF
Peru FAP Peruvian AF
New Zealand KIW Kiwi
Argentina FAG Argentine AF
Colombia FAC Fuerza Aerea Colombiana
United Emirates UAF Uniforce
Saudi Arabia RSF Arsaf
Singapore SAF Singa
Uruguay FAU Fuerza Aerea Uruguaya
Israel IAF Israeli AF
India IFC Indian AF

Brazil MB Brazilian Navy
Italy MNI Italian Navy
Netherlands NRN Netherland (royal) Navy
Germany GNY Germany Navy
France FNY/FMN French Navy
United Kingdom NVY Navy
United States NVY XX ## Navy XX is code ## is number
Thailand RTN Royal Thai Navy
Colombia ARC Armada Colombiana
Venezuela ARV Armada Bolivariana de Venezuela
India INS India Navy


Belgium BAr/BAF Belgium Army
Brazil AVX Brazilian Army
Italy I Italian Army
Denmark DAr Danish Army
United Kingdom ACC Army (aircorps)
France FMY French Army
Thailand RTA Royal Thai Army
Venezuela ENB Ejercito Nacional Bolivariano

Joint Guard

JGA Belgian AF
JGB Canadian AF
JGC Danish AF
JGD French AF
JGE German AF
JGF Greek AF
JGG Italian AF
JGI Netherlands AF
JGJ Norwegian AF
JGK Portuguese AF
JGL Spanish AF
JGN Royal AF
JGO United States AF
JGP Turkish AF
JGZ Various AF
JDF Jamaica Defence Force

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